**Author** - J.M. Vickers

**Publisher** - Springer Science & Business Media

**Pages** - 208

**ISBN** - 9401011583

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## Belief And Probability

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### Belief and Probability :

*Science*Download Read Now

**Detail** - 1. A WORD ABOUT PRESUPPOSITIONS This book is addressed to philosophers, and not necessarily to those philosophers whose interests and competence are largely mathematical or logical in the formal sense. It deals for the most part with problems in the theory of partial judgment. These problems are naturally formulated in numerical and logical terms, and it is often not easy to formulate them precisely otherwise. Indeed, the involvement of arithmetical and logical concepts seems essential to the philosophies of mind and action at just the point where they become concerned with partial judgment and" belief. I have tried throughout to use no mathematics that is not quite elementary, for the most part no more than ordinary arithmetic and algebra. There is some rudimentary and philosophically important employment of limits, but no use is made of integrals or differentials. Mathematical induction is rarely and inessentially employed in the text, but is more frequent and important in the apP'endix on set theory and Boolean algebra. • As far as logic is concerned, the book assumes a fair acquaintance with predicate logic and its techniques. The concepts of compactness and maximal consistency turn out to have important employment, which I have tried to keep self-contained, so that extensive knowledge of meta logical topics is not assumed. In a word, the book presupposes no more logical facility than is customary among working philosophers and graduate students, though it may call for unaccustomed vigor in its application.

### Degrees of Belief : Subjective Probability and Engineering Judgment

*Technology & Engineering* **Author** - Steven G. Vick

**Publisher** - ASCE Publications

**Pages** - 472

**ISBN** - 9780784405987

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**Detail** - Observing at a risk analysis conference for civil engineers that participants did not share a common language of probability, Vick, a consultant and geotechnic engineer, set out to not only examine why, but to also bridge the gap. He reexamines three elements at the core of engineering the concepts

### Probability : A Philosophical Introduction

*Mathematics* **Author** - D. H. Mellor

**Publisher** - Psychology Press

**Pages** - 152

**ISBN** - 9780415282512

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**Detail** - This work presents the basic concepts of probability to philosophy students who are new to this area of the subject.

### Between Probability and Certainty : What Justifies Belief

*Philosophy* **Author** - Martin Smith

**Publisher** - Oxford University Press

**Pages** - 256

**ISBN** - 0191071633

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**Detail** - Martin Smith explores a question central to philosophy—namely, what does it take for a belief to be justified or rational? According to a widespread view, whether one has justification for believing a proposition is determined by how probable that proposition is, given one's evidence. In the present book this view is rejected and replaced with another: in order for one to have justification for believing a proposition, one's evidence must normically support it—roughly, one's evidence must make the falsity of that proposition abnormal in the sense of calling for special, independent explanation. This conception of justification bears upon a range of topics in epistemology and beyond, including the relation between justification and knowledge, the force of statistical evidence, the problem of scepticism, the lottery and preface paradoxes, the viability of multiple premise closure, the internalist/externalist debate, the psychology of human reasoning, and the relation between belief and degrees of belief. Ultimately, this way of looking at justification guides us to a new, unfamiliar picture of how we should respond to our evidence and manage our own fallibility. This picture is developed here.

### The Stability of Belief : How Rational Belief Coheres with Probability

*Philosophy* **Author** - Hannes Leitgeb

**Publisher** - Oxford University Press

**Pages** - 368

**ISBN** - 0191047015

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**Detail** - In everyday life we normally express our beliefs in all-or-nothing terms: I believe it is going to rain; I don't believe that my lottery ticket will win. In other cases, if possible, we resort to numerical probabilities: my degree of belief that it is going to rain is 80%; the probability that I assign to my ticket winning is one in a million. It is an open philosophical question how all-or-nothing belief and numerical belief relate to each other, and how we ought to reason with them simultaneously. The Stability of Belief develops a theory of rational belief that aims to answer this question. Hannes Leitgeb develops a joint normative theory of all-or-nothing belief and numerical degrees of belief. While rational all-or-nothing belief is studied in traditional epistemology and is usually assumed to obey logical norms, rational degrees of belief constitute the subject matter of Bayesian epistemology and are normally taken to conform to probabilistic norms. One of the central open questions in formal epistemology is what beliefs and degrees of belief have to be like in order for them to cohere with each other. The answer defended in this book is a stability account of belief: a rational agent believes a proposition just in case the agent assigns a stably high degree of belief to it. Leitgeb determines this theory's consequences for, and applications to, learning, suppositional reasoning, decision-making, assertion, acceptance, conditionals, and chance. The volume builds new bridges between logic and probability theory, traditional and formal epistemology, theoretical and practical rationality, and synchronic and diachronic norms for reasoning.

### The Laws of Belief : Ranking Theory and Its Philosophical Applications

*Philosophy* **Author** - Wolfgang Spohn

**Publisher** - Oxford University Press

**Pages** - 598

**ISBN** - 0199697507

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**Detail** - Wolfgang Spohn presents the first full account of the dynamic laws of belief, by means of ranking theory, a relative of probability theory which he has pioneered since the 1980s. He offers novel insights into the nature of laws, the theory of causation, inductive reasoning and its experiential base, and a priori principles of reason.

### The Dynamics of Degrees of Belief :

**Author** -

**Publisher** - Prof. Amos Nathan

**Pages** - 47

**ISBN** - 9659103417

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**Detail** -

### Probability and Rationality : Studies on L. Jonathan Cohen's Philosophy of Science

*Science* **Author** - Ellery Eells

**Publisher** - Rodopi

**Pages** - 345

**ISBN** - 9789051833164

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**Detail** -

### Probability and Conditionals : Belief Revision and Rational Decision

*Philosophy* **Author** - Ellery Eells, Brian Skyrms

**Publisher** - Cambridge University Press

**Pages** - 207

**ISBN** - 9780521453592

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**Detail** - Essays on the state of research investigating the relationship between conditionals and conditional probabilities.

### Interval / Probabilistic Uncertainty and Non-classical Logics :

*Computers* **Author** - Van-Nam Huynh, Yoshiteru Nakamori, Hiroakira Ono, Jonathan Lawry, Vladik Kreinovich, Hung T. Nguyen

**Publisher** - Springer Science & Business Media

**Pages** - 394

**ISBN** - 9783540776642

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**Detail** - This book contains the proceedings of the first International Workshop on Interval/Probabilistic Uncertainty and Non Classical Logics, Ishikawa, Japan, March 25-28, 2008. The workshop brought together researchers working on interval and probabilistic uncertainty and on non-classical logics. It is hoped this workshop will lead to a boost in the much-needed collaboration between the uncertainty analysis and non-classical logic communities, and thus, to better processing of uncertainty.

### Foundations and Philosophy of Epistemic Applications of Probability Theory :

*Philosophy* **Author** - William Harper, Cliff Hooker

**Publisher** - Springer Science & Business Media

**Pages** - 309

**ISBN** - 9789027706171

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**Detail** - Proceedings of an International Research Colloquium held at the University of Western Ontario, 10-13 May 1973.

### Preference, Belief, and Similarity : Selected Writings

*Psychology* **Author** - Amos Tversky, Eldar Shafir

**Publisher** - MIT Press

**Pages** - 1023

**ISBN** - 9780262700931

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**Detail** - Selected works by the influential cognitive and mathematical psychologist and decision theorist Amos Tversky.

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