Forensic Taphonomy

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Forensic Taphonomy : The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains

Law

Author - Marcella H. Sorg, William D. Haglund
Publisher - CRC Press
Pages - 668
ISBN - 9781439821923


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Detail - Links have recently been established between the study of death assemblages by archaeologists and paleontologists (taphonomy) and the application of physical anthropology concepts to the medicolegal investigation of death (forensic anthropology). Forensic Taphonomy explains these links in a broad-based, multidisciplinary volume. It applies taphonomic models in modern forensic contexts and uses forensic cases to extend taphonomic theories. Review articles, case reports, and chapters on methodology round out this book's unique approach to forensic science.

Manual of Forensic Taphonomy :

Law

Author - James Pokines, Steven A. Symes
Publisher - CRC Press
Pages - 496
ISBN - 1439878439


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Detail - Forensic taphonomy is the study of the postmortem changes to human remains, focusing largely on environmental effects—including decomposition in soil and water and interaction with plants, insects, and other animals. While other books have focused on subsets such as forensic botany and entomology, Manual of Forensic Taphonomy is the first update of the entire domain in more than ten years and the first book to consider distinguishing among multiple types of taphonomic changes. Edited by two of the most distinguished experts in the field, this volume examines taphonomic alterations to bone and related taphonomic processes common to cases of forensic interest. Specific chapters address a range of issues related to: Varying burial environments Animal scavenging and transport Fluvial and human transport Cultural modifications Marine environments Subaerial weathering Thermal alteration Recovery methods used in collecting the remains The book discusses inherent variations in survivability of different bones, degradation of DNA in different environments, and organisms involved in soft-tissue decomposition which result in skeletonization. It also describes microscopic alterations, color changes, macroscopic physical damage of multiple types, and bone loss through dispersal away from the location of initial body deposition. The authors present methods that can be employed to determine the timing of taphonomic damage (perimortem vs. postmortem) as well as checklists for the collection of microscopic and macroscopic taphonomic data. The ability to recognize taphonomic characteristics and discriminate between osseous alterations with similar appearances but dissimilar origins is essential to those engaged in the analysis of skeletal remains. This volume is an ideal guide for students and non-specialists as well as a reference manual for professionals.

Advances in Forensic Taphonomy : Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives

Law

Author - William D. Haglund, Marcella H. Sorg
Publisher - CRC Press
Pages - 544
ISBN - 9781420058352


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Detail - The taphonomic approach within paleontology, archaeology, and paleoanthropology continues to produce advances in understanding postmortem biochemical and morphological transformations. Conversely, advances in understanding the early and intermediate postmortem period generated in the forensic realm can and should be brought to the attention of scientists who study the historic and prehistoric past. Building on the success of Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives presents new and updated techniques. It expands the taphonomic focus on biogeographic context and microenvironments and integrates further the theoretical and methodological links with archaeology and paleontology. Topics covered include: Microenvironmental variation and decomposition in different environments Taphonomic interpretation of water deaths Mass graves, mass fatalities and war crimes, archaeological and forensic approaches Updates in geochemical and entomological analysis Interpretation of burned human remains Discrimination of trauma from postmortem change Taphonomic applications at the scene and in the lab This comprehensive text takes an interdisciplinary and international approach to understanding taphonomic modifications. Liberally illustrated with photographs, maps, and other images, Advances in Forensic Taphonomy: Method, Theory, and Archaeological Perspectives is a valuable source of information for postmortem death investigation.

Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy : Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains

Law

Author - Mark Tibbett, David O. Carter
Publisher - CRC Press
Pages - 364
ISBN - 9781420069921


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Detail - A burial environment is a complex and dynamic system. It plays host to an abundance of interdependent chemical, physical, and biological processes, which are greatly influenced by the inclusion of a body and its subsequent decay. However, while taphonomy continues to emerge as a valuable forensic tool, until now most of the attention has been on the cadaver rather than the grave itself. Soil Analysis in Forensic Taphonomy: Chemical and Biological Effects of Buried Human Remains is the first book to concentrate entirely on the telling impact of soil and its components on the postmortem fate of human remains. Examining the basic physicochemical composition of the soil as it relates to forensic science and taphonomy, leading experts from across the world— · Offer an introduction to the nature, distribution, and origin of soil materials in forensic comparisons · Discuss the action of biological soil components, including invertebrates, fungi, and bacteria · Address rates and processes of decomposition and time of death estimates · Detail methods for characterizing and fingerprinting soils · Provide extensive information on the decomposition of hair Edited by Mark Tibbett, a soil microbiologist and David Carter, a forensic scientist, this unique resourceprovides an up-to-date overview of fundamental scientific principles and methods used in forensic taphonomy from a soils-based perspective. It provides an understanding of the processes at work, as well as practical methods and advice for those involved with active investigation.

Taphonomy of Human Remains : Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Medical

Author - Eline M. J. Schotsmans, Nicholas Márquez-Grant, Shari L. Forbes
Publisher - John Wiley & Sons
Pages - 542
ISBN - 1118953320


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Detail - A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science. The book combines essential theory with practical crime scene work, includes case studies, is applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology, and combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance.

Forensic Taphonomy and Ecology of North American Scavengers :

Law

Author - Susan N. Sincerbox, Elizabeth A. DiGangi
Publisher - Academic Press
Pages - 232
ISBN - 0128132639


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Detail - Forensic Taphonomy and Ecology of North American Scavengers compiles research on vertebrate scavenging behavior from numerous academic fields, including ecology and forensic anthropology. Scavenging behavior can displace remains from their depositional context, confound postmortem interval estimation, destroy osteological markers, and inflict damage that mimics or disguises perimortem trauma. Consequently, the actions of vertebrate scavengers can significantly impact the medicolegal investigation of human remains. It is therefore critical when interpreting a death scene and its associated evidence that scavenging be recognized and the possible effects of scavenging behavior considered. This book is an ideal reference for both students and medicolegal professionals, serving as a field manual for the identification of common scavenging species known to modify human remains in North America. In addition, this book presents a framework to guide investigators in optimizing their approach to scavenged cases, promoting more complete recovery of human remains and the accuracy of forensic reconstructions of peri- and postmortem events. Examines scavenging behavior through an evolutionary and ecological lens, integrating research from diverse fields. Includes brief summaries of the taphonomic signatures and ecological contexts of common or well-studied North American scavenging taxa Proposes strategies to maximize the recovery of vertebrate-scavenged human remains and improve forensic reconstructions of peri- and postmortem events

Principles Of Forensic Taphonomy : Decomposition Processes Associated With Gravesoils

Medical

Author - Mark Tibbett, David O. Carter
Publisher - Humana PressInc
Pages - 300
ISBN - 9781588295064


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Detail - Taphonomy aims to understand the preservation of plant and animal remains through the study of the materials in which they are preserved. In the years to come, soils may be viewed as an integral and defining component of taphonomic science. Soils & Taphonomy acts as a doorway into a new paradigm for taphonomic sciences, examining the role of soil microbial biomass, invertebrates, fungi in terrestrial decomposition, as well as decomposition of bone and other materials associated with buried cadavers in soil.

Forensic Taphonomy : Definitions and Applications to Forensic Anthropology and Paleoanthropology

Forensic anthropology

Author - Danielle Erika Mary Bielenstein
Publisher -
Pages - 478
ISBN -


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Detail -

Criminal and Environmental Soil Forensics :

Medical

Author - Karl Ritz, Lorna Dawson, David Miller
Publisher - Springer Science & Business Media
Pages - 519
ISBN - 1402092040


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Detail - Soils have important roles to play in criminal and environmental forensic science. Since the initial concept of using soil in forensic investigations was mooted by Conan Doyle in his Sherlock Holmes stories prior to real-world applications, this branch of forensic science has become increasingly sophisticated and broad. New techniques in chemical, physical, biological, ecological and spatial analysis, coupled with informatics, are being applied to reducing areas of search by investigators, site identification, site comparison and measurement for the eventual use as evidence in court. Soils can provide intelligence, in assisting the determination of the provenance of samples from artifacts, victims or suspects, enabling their linkage to locations or other evidence. They also modulate change in surface or buried cadavers and hence affect the ability to estimate post-mortem or post-burial intervals, and locate clandestine graves. This interdisciplinary volume explores the conceptual and practical interplay of soil and geoforensics across the scientific, investigative and legal fields. Supported by reviews, case-studies from across the world, and reports of original research, it demonstrates the increasing convergence of a wide range of knowledge. It covers conceptual issues, evidence (from recovery to use in court), geoforensics, taphonomy, as well as leading-edge technologies. The application of the resultant soil forensics toolbox is leading to significant advances in improving crime detection, and environmental and national security.

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology :

Social Science

Author - Dennis Dirkmaat
Publisher - John Wiley & Sons
Pages - 752
ISBN - 1118255410


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Detail - A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.

The Analysis of Burned Human Remains :

Social Science

Author - Christopher W. Schmidt, Steven A. Symes
Publisher - Academic Press
Pages - 296
ISBN - 008055928X


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Detail - This unique reference provides a primary source for osteologists and the medical/legal community for the understanding of burned bone remains in forensic or archaeological contexts. It describes in detail the changes in human bone and soft tissues as a body burns at both the chemical and gross levels and provides an overview of the current procedures in burned bone study. Case studies in forensic and archaeological settings aid those interested in the analysis of burned human bodies, from death scene investigators, to biological anthropologists looking at the recent or ancient dead. Includes the diagnostic patterning of color changes that give insight to the severity of burning, the positioning of the body, and presence (or absence) of soft tissues during the burning event Chapters on bones and teeth give step-by-step recommendations for how to study and recognize burned hard tissues

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology :

Social Science

Author - Joshua Blau
Publisher - Routledge
Pages - 534
ISBN - 1315427761


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Detail - Over the last 10 years interest in the disciplines of forensic anthropology and archaeology has exploded. In order to provide archaeologists and their students with a reliable understanding of these disciplines, this authoritative volume draws contributions from fifty experienced practitioners from around the world to offer a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. Over 40 chapters weave together historical development, current field methods in analyzing crime, natural disasters and human atrocities, an array of laboratory techniques, key case studies, legal, professional, and ethical issues, and promising future directions, all from a global perspective. This volume will be the benchmark for the understanding of anthropological and archaeological forensics for years to come.