The Martians Of Science

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The Martians of Science : Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century

Biography & Autobiography

Author - István Hargittai
Publisher - Oxford University Press
Pages - 313
ISBN - 0195365569


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Detail - If science has the equivalent of a Bloomsbury group, it is the five men born at the turn of the twentieth century in Budapest: Theodore von Karman, Leo Szilard, Eugene Wigner, John von Neumann, and Edward Teller. From Hungary to Germany to the United States, they remained friends and continued to work together and influence each other throughout their lives. As a result, their work was integral to some of the most important scientific and political developments of the twentieth century.Istvan Hargittai tells the story of this remarkable group: Wigner won a Nobel Prize in theoretical physics; Szilard was the first to see that a chain reaction based on neutrons was possible, initiated the Manhattan Project, but left physics to try to restrict nuclear arms; von Neumann could solve difficult problems in his head and developed the modern computer for more complex problems; von Karman became the first director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, providing the scientific basis for the U.S. Air Force; and Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb, whose name is now synonymous with the controversial "Star Wars" initiative of the 1980s. Each was fiercely opinionated, politically active, and fought against all forms of totalitarianism. Hargittai, as a young Hungarian physical chemist, was able to get to know some of these great men in their later years, and the depth of information and human interest in The Martians of Science is the result of his personal relationships with the subjects, their families, and their contemporaries. "This is an important story that needs to be told, and Hargittai tells it well." - Nature "What a story! Hargittai, a Jewish-Hungarian like his heroes, tells the remarkable story of five immigrants, of vastly different politics, without whom American science (and the world) would not be the same." - Roald Hoffmann, Nobel laureate, Cornell University

Wisdom of the Martians of Science : In Their Own Words with Commentaries

Science

Author - Balazs Hargittai, István Hargittai
Publisher - World Scientific
Pages - 264
ISBN - 9814723835


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Detail - ' Wisdom of the Martians of Science refers to five scientists whose brilliance contributed to shaping the modern world. John von Neumann was a pioneer of the modern computer; Theodore von Kármán was the scientist behind the US Air Force; Leo Szilard initiated the development of nuclear weapons; the Nobel laureate Eugene P Wigner was the world''s first nuclear engineer; and Edward Teller was the father of the hydrogen bomb. They were born and raised in Budapest, were forced out of Hungary and then from Germany, they became Americans, and devoted themselves to the defense of the United States and the Free World. They contributed significant discoveries to fundamental science ranging from the properties of materials to the application of the symmetry principle in physics, to creating information theory, to game theory. The areas in which we can learn about their wisdom include applications of science to past, present and future real-world needs; defense; education; environment; human nature; humor; politics; religion; weather modification, and others. This book shows the wisdom of the Martians by presenting their thoughts and ideas in their own words and placing them into context. Their wisdom is intriguing, witty, provocative and thought provoking. It extended over many aspects of life and culture that impinge on our existence. While we cannot always agree with what they say, they are never boring. The power of their words and their philosophies will inspire the readers to pursue their own dreams. Contents:IntroductionJohn von Neumann''s WisdomTheodore von Kármán''s WisdomLeo Szilard''s WisdomEugene P Wigner''s WisdomEdward Teller''s WisdomFinal Thoughts Readership: Scientists and lay persons. Keywords:John von Neumann;Theodore von Kármán;Leo Szilard;Edward Teller;Eugene Wigner;Martians of Science "This book is about five famous scientists, whose lives followed similar paths in the rocky terrains of the twentieth century. As Jewish–Hungarians they had to immigrate to the United States; as outstanding scientists, they were leading figures in the development of modern physics and computer science; and as believers in democracy and freedom, they assumed important roles in the global political fight for these ideas. The book by Balazs Hargittai and István Hargittai presents their views, feelings and wisdom through quotes from their writings, with comments from the authors. This makes a fascinating, memorable and sometimes provocative reading." László Lovász President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Wolf-Prize Laureate Mathematician "Balazs and István Hargittai have produced a wonderful book, which should be on every scientist''s coffee table and in the reading room of every university library. The book is not only immensely interesting, but also illustrated with an exceptional collection of photographs." Anders Bárány former Deputy Director of the Nobel Museum, Stockholm "Wisdom comes with age, yet much of the wisdom collected here was acquired long before its time. Mathematical talent gave these five Hungarians an early start, sharpened by the turmoil in Europe through which they were forced to make their escape. The refuge they found in America gave them time and opportunity to reflect. Here, set in just the right amount of historical context, is a group portrait of their time. Insights abound — yet the miracle of how this constellation of genius appeared at this critical moment in history remains no less astonishing for being so well explained." George Dyson author of Turing''s Cathedral: The Origin of the Digital Universe "Wisdom of the Martians of Science is unputdownable for anyone curious about how science in the mid-twentieth century transformed our planet. Five Hungarians, the ''Martians'', in America led this transformation. Geniuses all but each very different. We hear them in their words, placed in context, to marvel how oppression and adversity did not bend their drive. No matter what our opinions of each of them, and some such as Teller generate strong responses, we cannot but be amazed at their ''octopus-like'' approaches. Their tentacles curl around every problem from basic to applied, from politics to defence, from making bombs to making peace. These are the Hargittais at their best, taking us back in time to sit on a roller-coaster ride through science. Fasten your seat belts and enjoy." K VijayRaghavan FRS, Distinguished Professor and former Director of The National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore "I recommend highly the Hargittais'' book. It is a stimulating read of the thinking and views of five Hungarian born scientists (the fictional Martians). They significantly contributed to fundamental changes of our life from the harnessing of the energy of the atom (and the need to live with the atom bomb) to the emergence of the computer age." George A Olah Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, 1994 "Five scientific pioneers were outstanding geniuses, first as a group of Budapest boys, then as bravely original individuals in their science, social ideas, and spiritual insights. This book reveals both their brilliance and their humanity." William Lanouette author of Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, the Man Behind the Bomb "Wisdom of the Martians of Science is a strong and often charming group profile of five great Hungarian scientists of an earlier age. The book is simple in structure, learned and reasonable in tone, and generous with photographs and telling details. It is a marvelous book and I hope that it finds a wide audience." Andrew Szanton co-author of The Recollections of Eugene P Wigner "No one is better acquainted with the lives of the Martians of Science — five Hungarian geniuses who put their extraordinary talents to work in the cause of democracy and freedom — than the father-and-son team of Istvan and Balazs Hargittai. With widely-varying personalities, from the imperious Edward Teller to the courteous, soft-spoken Eugene Wigner, the five had in common, in addition to their incredible brains, a shared history as émigré Hungarian Jews who made new lives in the United States, and whose contributions in the fields of physics, rocketry, and computer development played a critical role in their adopted country''s victory in World War II. Much has been written about these men, but only the Hargittais have allowed us a glimpse into their souls through their own words, put in context by the authors. I am the daughter of one of the Martians, John von Neumann, and knew several of the others personally, but this group portrait has given me new insights that I treasure." Marina v N Whitman Professor of Business Administration & Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and author of The Martian''s Daughter '

The Voice of the Martians : Hungarian Scientists who Shaped the 20th Century in the West

Science

Author - George Marx
Publisher - Akademiai Kiado
Pages - 427
ISBN -


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Detail -

The Martian's Daughter : A Memoir

Biography & Autobiography

Author - Marina Whitman
Publisher - University of Michigan Press
Pages - 308
ISBN - 0472118420


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Detail - Marina Whitman is the daughter and only child of John von Neumann, one of the five Hungarian scientific geniuses dubbed “the Martians” by their colleagues, a figure often hailed as the greatest mathematician of the 20th century and even as the greatest scientist after Einstein. He was a key figure in the Manhattan project; the inventor of game theory; the pioneer developer of the modern stored-program electronic computer; and, right up until his death, an adviser to the top echelons of the American military establishment. Whitman’s memoir is the story of how the cosmopolitan environment in which she was immersed, the demanding expectations of her parents, and her own struggles to emerge from the shadow of a larger-than-life parent shaped her life and work. Starting as, in her words, “a trailing spouse,” she rose to become a noted academic during the 1960s and ’70s, casting her teaching and writing in the framework of globalization before the word had been invented. She was the first woman ever to serve on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers and participated actively in U.S. efforts to reshape the international monetary and financial system during the early 1970s. She pioneered the role of women on the boards of leading multinational corporations, and became the highest-ranking female executive in the American auto industry in the 1980s, serving not only as GM’s vice president and chief economist but also as its Cassandra while the firm persisted along a path that led eventually to its collapse into bankruptcy.

The Martian Chronicles :

Fiction

Author - Ray Bradbury
Publisher - Simon and Schuster
Pages - 241
ISBN - 1451678193


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Detail - The tranquility of Mars is disrupted by humans who want to conquer space, colonize the planet, and escape a doomed Earth.

The Martians :

Fiction

Author - Kim Stanley Robinson
Publisher - Spectra
Pages - 448
ISBN - 9780553898309


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Detail - Kim Stanley Robinson's Mars trilogy is one of science fiction's most honored series, with Red Mars winning the distinguished Nebula Award, and both Green Mars and Blue Mars honored with the Hugo. A modern-day classic of the genre, this epic saga deftly portrays the human stories behind Earth's most ambitious project yet: the terraforming of Mars. Now, following the publication of his acclaimed adventure novel, Antarctica, Robinson returns to the realm he has made his own, in a work that brilliantly weaves together a futuristic setting with a poetic vision of the human spirit engaged in a drama as ancient as mankind itself. From a training mission in Antarctica to blistering sandstorms sweeping through labyrinths of barren canyons, the interwoven stories of The Martians set in motion a sprawling cast of characters upon the surface of Mars. As the planet is transformed from an unexplored and forbidding terrain to a troubled image of a re-created Earth, we meet men and women who are bound together by their experiences on Mars and with each other. Among them are Michel, a French psychologist dazzled by the beauty around him; Maya, a woman whose ill-fated love affairs lead to her first voyage to Mars; and Roger, a tall Martian-born guide who lacks social skills but has the courage to survive on the planet's dangerous yet strangely compelling surface. Beginning with the First Hundred explorers, generations of friends, enemies, and lovers are swept up in the drama that is Earth's tenuous toehold on Mars. International exploration turns into world building; world building degenerates into political conflict, revolution, and war. Following the strands of these lives and events, in an age when human life has been extended for decades, The Martians becomes the story of generations lived on the edge of the ultimate frontier, in a landscape of constant man-made and natural transformation. This new masterpiece by Kim Stanley Robinson is a story of hope and disappointment, of fierce physical and psychological struggles. Both deeply human and scientifically cutting edge, The Martians is the epic chronicle of a planet that represents one of humanity's most glorious possibilities. A Letter from Kim Stanley Robinson: "When I finished Blue Mars, I realized I wasn't done with Mars yet. There were things I still wanted to say about the place, and about my characters from the trilogy, and there were a number of sidebar stories and characters that had found no place in the trilogy's structure. I also had a couple of precursor Mars stories that did not fit the trilogy's history--'Exploring Fossil Canyon' and 'Green Mars'--and I had held these out of my earlier story collections thinking they belonged with the Mars group." So all this material was there, and as I wrote Antarctica, I found myself drawn back into the matter of Mars repeatedly, by the discovery of possible life in meteorite AHL8004 and by the Pathfinder landing. I decided to make a collection of Martian tales, and as I put them in roughly chronological order, I saw that they seemed to be adding up to their own larger story, functioning as the trilogy's 'unconscious' or 'secret history'. Using all kinds of modes, from folk tales to scientific articles, from personal accounts to the full text of a constitution, I arranged things so that the book altogether tells the story of an underground and hard-to-see resistance to the terraforming described in the trilogy proper. I had a great time doing these stories, and hope they add up to my own version of a Martian Chronicles." From the Paperback edition.

The New Martians : A Scientific Novel

Science

Author - Nick Kanas
Publisher - Springer Science & Business Media
Pages - 123
ISBN - 3319009753


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Detail - The year is 2035, and the crew from the first expedition to Mars is returning to Earth. The crewmembers are anxious to get home, and ennui pervades the ship. The mood is broken by a series of mysterious events that jeopardize their safety. Someone or something is threatening the crew. Is it an alien being? A psychotic crewmember? A malfunctioning computer? The truth raises questions about the crewmembers’ fate and that of the human race.In this novel, the intent is to show real psychological issues that could affect a crew returning from a long-duration mission to Mars. The storyline presents a mystery that keeps the reader guessing, yet the issues at stake are based on the findings from the author’s research and other space-related work over the past 40+ years. The novel touches on actual plans being discussed for such an expedition as well as notions involving the search for Martian life and panspermia.The underlying science, in particular the psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal elements, are introduced and discussed by the author in an extensive appendix.Nick Kanas is an Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, where he directed the group therapy training program. For over 20 years he conducted research on group therapy, and for nearly 20 years after that he was the Principal Investigator of NASA-funded research on astronauts and cosmonauts. He is the co-author of Space Psychology and Psychiatry, which won the 2004 International Academy of Astronautics Life Science Book Award, and the author of Humans in Space: The Psychological Hurdles, which won the 2016 International Academy of Astronautics Life Science Book Award. Dr. Kanas has presented talks on space psychology and on celestial mapping at several regional and Worldcon science fiction conventions. A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society (London), he has been an amateur astronomer for over 50 years and is an avid reader of science fiction. He is also the author of two non-fiction books (Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography and Solar System Maps: From Antiquity to the Space Age) and two science fiction novels (The New Martians andThe Protos Mandate), all published by Springer.

We are the Martians : Connecting Cosmology with Biology

Science

Author - Giovanni F Bignami
Publisher - Springer Science & Business Media
Pages - 128
ISBN - 8847024668


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Detail - For many thousands of years, human beings have been asking themselves whether they are more frightened of being alone in the universe or of the thought that there is someone else out there. Over the past few decades, however, we have moved from imagination to action, exploring the cosmos using new techniques, often with surprising results. Numerous fascinating but little known facts have emerged – for example, that every year many rocks from Mars fall on the Earth, that one of our amino acids has been found in the coma of a comet, and that some of the known thousands of extrasolar planets are similar to our own. There are further exciting and important discoveries around the corner that will cast more light on the great enigma of how life started on Earth. In this intriguing book, one of the World’s leading researchers in astrophysics and space science examines fundamental questions concerning life on Earth and the rest of the cosmos in an accessible and stimulating way.

Genius in the Shadows : A Biography of Leo Szilard, the Man Behind the Bomb

Biography & Autobiography

Author - William Lanouette, Bela Silard
Publisher - Skyhorse
Pages - 641
ISBN - 1628734779


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Detail - Well-known names such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Edward Teller are usually those that surround the creation of the atom bomb. One name that is rarely mentioned is Leo Szilard, known in scientific circles as “father of the atom bomb.” The man who first developed the idea of harnessing energy from nuclear chain reactions, he is curiously buried with barely a trace in the history of this well-known and controversial topic. Born in Hungary and educated in Berlin, he escaped Hitler’s Germany in 1933 and that first year developed his concept of nuclear chain reactions. In order to prevent Nazi scientists from stealing his ideas, he kept his theories secret, until he and Albert Einstein pressed the US government to research atomic reactions and designed the first nuclear reactor. Though he started his career out lobbying for civilian control of atomic energy, he concluded it with founding, in 1962, the first political action committee for arms control, the Council for a Livable World. Besides his career in atomic energy, he also studied biology and sparked ideas that won others the Nobel Prize. The Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, where Szilard spent his final days, was developed from his concepts to blend science and social issues.

Imagining Mars : A Literary History

Fiction

Author - Robert Crossley
Publisher - Wesleyan University Press
Pages - 396
ISBN - 0819571059


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Detail - For centuries, the planet Mars has captivated astronomers and inspired writers of all genres. Whether imagined as the symbol of the bloody god of war, the cradle of an alien species, or a possible new home for human civilization, our closest planetary neighbor has played a central role in how we think about ourselves in the universe. From Galileo to Kim Stanley Robinson, Robert Crossley traces the history of our fascination with the red planet as it has evolved in literature both fictional and scientific. Crossley focuses specifically on the interplay between scientific discovery and literary invention, exploring how writers throughout the ages have tried to assimilate or resist new planetary knowledge. Covering texts from the 1600s to the present, from the obscure to the classic, Crossley shows how writing about Mars has reflected the desires and social controversies of each era. This astute and elegant study is perfect for science fiction fans and readers of popular science. Ebook Edition Note: The photo of Arthur C. Clarke photo on p. 209 has been redacted.

The Martian :

Astronauts

Author - Andy Weir
Publisher - Random House
Pages - 383
ISBN - 1785034677


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Detail - In the Young Readers Edition of The Martian: Classroom-appropriate language Discussion questions and activities Q&A with Andy Weir Six days ago, astronaut Mark Watney became one of the first people to walk on Mars. Now, he's sure he'll be the first person to die there. After a dust storm nearly kills him and forces his crew to evacuate while thinking him dead, Mark finds himself stranded and completely alone with no way to even signal Earth that he's alive - and even if he could get word out, his supplies would be gone long before a rescue could arrive. Chances are, though, he won't have time to starve to death. Damaged machinery, the unforgiving environment, or plain old "human error" are much more likely to kill him first. But Mark isn't ready to give up yet. Drawing on his ingenuity, his engineering skills and a relentless, dogged refusal to quit, he steadfastly confronts one seemingly insurmountable obstacle after the next. Will his resourcefulness be enough to overcome the impossible odds against him?

Martians, Go Home :

Fiction

Author - Fredric Brown
Publisher - Gateway
Pages - 168
ISBN - 0575102616


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Detail - THEY WERE GREEN, THEY WERE LITTLE, THEY WERE BALD AS BILLIARD BALLS AND THEY WERE EVERYWHERE! Luke Devereaux was a science fiction writer, holed up in a desert shack waiting for inspiration. He was the first to see a Martian - but he certainly wasn't the last. It was estimated that one billion of them had arrived - one to every three human beings on Earth. Obnoxious green creatures who could be seen and heard (but not harmed) and who probed private sex lives as shamelessly as they exposed government secrets. No one knew why they had come. No one knew how to make them go away - except perhaps, Luke Devereaux. Unfortunately he was going slightly bananas, so it wouldn't be easy. But for a science fiction writer nothing was impossible...